The Influence of European Arts on Bagh e Golestan: The Qajarid Garden

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Golestan Garden is part of the Palace of Qajarid Dynasty inside the Historical Citadel (Arg) of Tehran. The survey of its chronological changes shows the formation and extension of a traditional Garden throughout a century which developed from the Middle 18th C. and completed at the second half of the 19th C.at the southern part of the Arg. Parallel to its extension, various palaces with partially European outlook were built around the Garden which affected its environs and gradually changed its layout to the end of the 19th C. with the signs of European gardening. The importance of this transformation is the astonished preserved expression of the previous garden in its new layout, although the earlier design was broken away.

This article is based upon the results of my research; “The historical development of the Arg of Tehran” and is in two parts; the earlier design of the original garden and the later one with the changes which brought about with the influence of the European Arts:
The first part is a brief of the historical outline of the garden clarifying the classical principles of the design of its layout, as well as its surroundings. At this part, the discussion begins from the date of Zandyyeh Dynasty(1759 A.D.) to the first decade of Naser al-ddin Shah of Qajar (1859A.D.),when Bagh e Golestan was completed.
The second part comprises the period between 1869- 1895 (death of Naser al-ddin Shah Qajar). In this period due to modernizing trends in Iran, the Iranian- Islamic Landscape of the Royal Garden transformed into a layout and European appearance.

In this article, the first Garden with paradise-like connotations and formerly-popular layout will be compared with the new design of the second period with its significant features which are directly influenced by novelties resulted from changes in its inhabitants’ taste and manner.


Keywords: Garden, Qajar, Golestan, European Art
Stream: Arts Theory and Criticism
Presentation Type: Paper Presentation in English
Paper: The Influence of European Arts on Bagh-e-Golestan


Sedigheh Golshan

Lecturer, Department of Architectural History and Conservation
Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University

Tehran, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of)

I graduated from University of Tehran, Faculty of Fine Arts and I got my M.Sc. in “Architecture” at 1975. I continued my studies in the field of Conservation of Monuments and Sites by focusing on the historical cities. I got my M.Sc. In “Environmental Conservation” from Herriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, G. Britain at 1978. I worked on a few projects for the conservation of historic parts of the cities and since 1989 I am a Member of the Dept. of “History and Environmental Conservation” at Shahid Beheshti University, School of Architecture and Urban Planning and the guest lecturer of University of Tehran. My lectures are on History of Islamic Architecture of Iran and The Theory of conservation in historic cities. My major researches are about the Qajar Architecture and I’ve concentrated on “History of the Royal Arg of Tehran” and “History of the congregational Mosque of Yazd”. I’ve published several articles in both subjects in creditable Magazines in Iran and presented
my articles in related seminars. I’ve also published a few articles in a magazine in Canada .

Ref: A09P0766